Poster Natalya Mezenova
Bioproduct for sports nutrition using active peptides of collagen-containing fish raw materials
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Sports nutrition is a biologically active additives and specialized food products rich in stimulants of many organizm functions. They contribute to the solution of priority tasks in sports, such as increasing the adaptive potential, manifestation of an ergogenic effect, prevention of various diseases, etc.
Asignificant amount of fish by-products is accumulated in Kaliningrad region fish processing plants during the year. This is underutilized source of natural peptides of high biological activity. Peptides of marine origin with a molecular weight of less than 10 kDa have a pronounced pharmacological activity (tissue-specific, immune, antioxidant, antiseptic, anticoagulant, antistress, hypocholesterolemic, hypotensive).
Active peptides from fish collagen by-products can be used in sports nutrition to prevent damage of the athletes musculoskeletal system and to give additional pharmacological activity. Fish scales are a rich source of collagen and assimilable minerals - calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, chlorine. Its quantity can reach up to 1 ton per day in total Kaliningrad region fish processing plants. The fish scales are established to be the main source of protein (56.7–60.5 % of dry matter) with containing minimum amount of fat. The minerals content is rather high (10.9–12.1 % of dry matter).
The special physiological conditions of athletes require additional intake of carbohydrates together with easily digestible proteins and basic macro- and micronutrients in specialized nutrition.
Bee products are unique natural adaptogens and have been recommended for athletes since ancient times. They include many biochemical components that can be found on almost all functional foods. They are rich in simple sugars, proteins and essential amino acids, prebiotics, probiotics, fibre, bioactive peptides, mineral matters, vitamins, organic acid, phytohormones, phytosterols, flavonoids etc.
The main scientific idea is to obtain low molecular weight peptides from fish collagen tissues using hydrolysis, which can be used in special food products.
The technology of bioproduct «ApicollTonus» for sports nutrition has been developed using sardina scales active peptides and minerals. The combination of hydrolysis products scales with bee products (honey, bee bread, pollen, propolis) provides a synergistic ergogenic effect. This carbohydrate-protein mixture in the jelly form is designed to have a positive effect on the speed-strength indicators of athletes.
The production of peptides with low molecular weight was carried out by comparatively three types of sardine scales hydrolysis - thermal, enzymatic and enzymatic-thermal hydrolysis using enzyme preparation Collagenase, high temperatures and pressure. Frozen blocks of sardine scales were previously subjected to grinding. The technology applies to other fish collagen by-products (spine bones, heads).
Two food additives are preliminarily obtained from scales by hydrolysis after removing the fat fraction. The first additive «Ichthyocollagen fermentolizate» is a concentrate of water-soluble active peptides with a molecular weight of less than 10 kDa. The second supplement «Protein-Mineral Ichthyocomplex» contains water-insoluble mineral substances. Both additives are sublimation fine homogeneous powder of light brown color.
The yield of proteins from the protein fraction of native sardine scales was 83.9% by enzymatic-thermal hydrolysis; 65.0% - by enzymatic hydrolysis; 27.7% - by thermal hydrolysis. The analysis of the molecular weight composition revealed the highest content of active peptides in the enzymatic hydrolyzate (98.1% of the mass of the hydrolyzate protein fraction). The lowest content was in the thermal hydrolyzate (53.3%). The best way of hydrolysis is enzymatic-thermal hydrolysis. The content of active peptides was 91.7% of the mass of the hydrolyzate protein fraction. The study of the general chemical composition of the additive «Ichthyocollagen fermentolizate» revealed the content of protein 97.9%, mineral substances - 0.14%, fat - 1.74%. The study of the general chemical composition of the additive «Protein-Mineral Ichthyocomplex» revealed the protein content of 63.0%, mineral substances - 34.6%, fat - 2.39%.
The bioproduct "ApikollTonus" contains of protein 20.5%; carbohydrates 41.6%; fat 2.8%; minerals 6.4%. Proline predominates significantly among the amino acids of the protein fraction of the bioproduct (30.17%). The calculated biological value of the bioproduct protein fraction was 91% according to the FAO WHO method. The content of reducing sugars has been determined: fructose - 25.7%, glucose 20.9%, maltose - 2.2%, sucrose - less than 0.1%. About 50% of the the carbohydrate fraction mass is represented by pectin and polysaccharides of bee products (fiber, etc.). The content of calcium in 100 g of the bioproduct is 1093.9 mg, phosphorus - 406.3 mg. The recommended daily portion is 30 g.
The safety of the bioproduct "ApikollTonus" is confirmed in accordance with the requirements of «Customs Union Technical Regulations on safety of food products (CU TR 021/2011)».
Improvement of test speed-power indicators of athletes using of the bioproduct "ApikollTonus" during 4 weeks was established. There was a positive dynamics in the increase of the levels of erythrocytes, hemoglobin, total protein, calcium and iron. The levels of urea, uric acid, lactate, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein in the blood of athletes are decreased.
The technology makes it possible to complex process the underutilized by-products of the fish processing plants, to increase the level of their profitability, to expand the range of products, and to improve the ecological situation.
Patent RU no. 2552444 "The composition of the product with biologically active properties" received. The prospects for further improvement of the topic are the wider use of new food additives as part of other compositions for nutrition of athletes and other population groups.
Mezenova Natalya Yuryevna, Ph.D., Assoc. Professor, Department of Food Biotechnology, Kaliningrad State Technical University, RUSSIA email@example.com
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- Mezenova O.Ya., Volkov V.V., Moersel T., Grimm T., Kuehn S., Hoehling A., Mezenova N.Yu. A comparative assessment of hydrolysis methods used to obtain fish collagen peptides and investigation of their amino acid balance. Izvestiya Vuzov. Prikladnaya Khimiya i Biotekhnologiya [Proceedings of Universities. Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology]. 2018. Т. 8. № 4 (27). pp. 83-94. (in Russian).