Some of the soils in the Baltic Sea region are among the
richest in the World
The soil has three ecological functions: productivity,
filtering and as habitat for microorganisms
The soil has also three other functions of a technical,
industrial and social uses: as infrastructure, as a natural resources and as
Three are many threats to the productivity of the soils. Although
soils have a self-purification capacity they may need some sort of
Soils quality is regulated by legal instruments
Erosion of soil is generally not a problem in the Baltic Sea
region. Still about one mm of soil is lost every year.
Salination or loss of organic material is usually not a
problem of the soils in the Baltic Sea region. However, acidification may
influence some soils negatively especially in western Sweden and Norway
Soils are often contaminated by industrial activities and by
the infrastructure it supports. Difficult pollutants include waste water
sludge and benzene, toluene, and PAH and PCB and heavy metals
Remediation of contaminated soils is a difficult and
Several countries have national programs for soil
The most direct approach to soil remediation is excavation.
Other in-situ methods include groundwater pumping and treating, soil vapor
extraction, bioventing and air sparging.
Contaminated soils could also be contained. Methods include
grout curtains, slurry walls and sheet piling cut-off walls.
Physical and chemical on-site treatments include: thermal
processes, soils washing, soil flushing, solidification or stabilization,
chemical destruction and chemical oxidation.
Bioremediation uses microorganisms to mediate the
transformation of hazardous chemicals to less dangerous ones.
Solid waste is a quantitively important material flow. In
the Baltic Sea region it is about one tonne per person per year
Solid wastes are generated during raw materials extraction,
production processes, energy generation processes, commercial activities,
and in households
Landfills are often contaminating soil and groundwater in
Mining and quarrying produces the largest amounts of solid
wastes in the Baltic Sea region
Municipal wastes includes commercial waste and waste
generated by households.
The basic level of solid waste management consists of waste
collection, landfilling and incineration. Recycling is considered a second
level management method
Reuse of material or goods and recycling of refuse close the
flow of materials in the society
In general municipal wastes consists of up to 75% recyclable
Incineration is applied to both municipal and industrial
wastes. Most combustion facilities generate energy which is used for
production of electricity, heating or distilled water.
Landfills are organised dumping on land
Hazardous wastes are usually handled in special centers for
Nuclear wastes produced from the nuclear power industry and
from medical, research and industrial activities needs special
treatment and final storage as they was be hazardous during long times