The atmosphere is changed by human activity by the emissions
or greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2 and by ozone destructive compounds, e.g.
Globally more energy is used for cooling than heating.
Energy systems consist of the extraction of energy source,
transportation of energy carrier, conversion, distribution of energy and
final conversion that provides the desired service.
Energy consumption is roughly shared equally between households,
industry and the transport sector.
The countries in the Baltic Sea region are well endowed with
fossil energy resources
The Earth is presently going through a period of climate
change with increased average global temperature.
Many factors influence the the global climate, one is the
content of greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere.
As a result of human activities atmospheric CO2 content has
risen by about 30% since 1790 AD and is continuing this increase.
The consequences of the global warming could be estimated
using climate change models.
For the Baltic Sea region not only a higher annual mean
temperature is expected but also an increase in the mean annual
The global warming may also have impacts on biodiversity,
agriculture and forestry, water resources, coastal zones, energy consumption
and also on human health.
The ozone layer in the outer stratosphere absorbs and reduces
the UV radiation on the ground.
Freons, CFCs, have been shown to be the main agent causing
ozone depletion in the stratosphere.
Emissions of CFCs to the atmosphere peaked in the years
1975-85 and has since decreased. The content of CFCs in the atmosphere is
estimated to have begun to decrease.
Renewable energy resources, e.g. hydropower, wind power,
biomass, solar, tidal and geothermal technologies have to be used if the
dependence on CO2 producing fossil fuel systems are going to be diminished.